FACE Model-Data Synthesis

Walker AP, De Kauwe MG, Bastos A, Belmecheri S, Georgiou K, Keeling RF, McMahon SM, Medlyn BE, Moore DJP, Norby RJ, Zaehle S, Anderson-Teixeira KJ, Battipaglia G, Brienen RJW, Cabugao KG, Cailleret M, Campbell E, Canadell JG, Ciais P, Craig ME, Ellsworth DS, Farquhar GD, Fatichi S, Fisher JB, Frank DC, Graven H, Gu L, Haverd V, Heilman K, Heimann M, Hungate BA, Iversen CM, Joos F, Jiang M, Keenan TF, Knauer J, Körner C, Leshyk VO, Leuzinger S, Liu Y, MacBean N, Malhi Y, McVicar TR, Penuelas J, Pongratz J, Powell AS, Riutta T, Sabot MEB Schleucher J, Sitch S, Smith WK, Sulman B, Taylor B, Terrer C, Torn MS, Treseder KK, Trugman AT, Trumbore SE, van Mantgem PJ, Voelker SL, Whelan ME, Zuidema PA. 2021.  Integrating the evidence for a terrestrial carbon sink caused by increasing atmospheric CO2. New Phytologist 229: 2413-2445. PDF

Walker AP, De Kauwe MG, Medlyn BE, Zaehle S, Iversen CM, Asao S, Guenet B, Harper A, Hickler T, Hungate BA, Jain AK, Luo Y, Lu X, Lu M, Luus K, Megonigal JP, Oren R, Ryan E, Shu S, Talhelm A, Wang Y-P, Warren JM, Werner C, Xia J, Yang B, Zak DR, Norby RJ. 2019. Decadal biomass increment in early secondary succession woody ecosystems is increased by CO2 enrichment. Nature Communications 10: 454. PDF

De Kauwe MG, Medlyn BE, Walker AP, Zaehle S, Asao S, Guenet B, Harper A, Hickler T, Jain A, Luo Y, Lu C, Luus K, Parton WJ, Shu S, Wang YP, Werner C, Xia J, Pendall E, Morgan JA, Ryan EM, Carrillo Y, Dijkstra FA, Norby RJ. 2017. Challenging terrestrial biosphere models with data from the long-term multi-factor Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment experiment. Global Change Biology 23: 3623-3645. PDF

Medlyn BE, De Kauwe MG, Zaehle S, Walker AP, Duursma RA, Luus K, Mishurov M, Pak B, Smith B, Wang YP, Yang X, Crous KY, Drake JE, Gimeno TE, Macdonald CA, Norby RJ, Power SA, Tjoelker MG, Ellsworth DS. 2016. Using models to guide field experiments: a priori predictions for the CO2 response of a nutrient- and water-limited native Eucalypt woodland. Global Change Biology 22: 2834-2851. PDF

Norby RJ, De Kauwe MG, Domingues TF, Duursma RA, Ellsworth DS, Goll DS, Lapola DL, Luus KA, MacKenzie AR, Medlyn BE, Pavlick R, Rammig A, Smith B, Thomas R, Thonicke K, Walker AP, Yang X, Zaehle S. 2016. Model-data synthesis for the next generation of forest FACE experiments. New Phytologist 209: 17-28. PDF

Medlyn BE, Zaehle S, De Kauwe MG, Walker AP, Dietze MC, Hanson PJ, Hickler T, Jain AK, Luo Y, Parton W, Prentice IC, Thornton PE, Wang S, Wang YP, Weng E, Iversen CM, McCarthy HR, Warren JM, Oren R, Norby RJ. 2015. Using ecosystem experiments to improve vegetation models. Nature Climate Change 5: 528-534. PDF

Walker AP, ZaehleS, Medlyn BE, De Kauwe MG, Asao S, Hickler T, PartonW, Ricciuto D, WangYP, WårlindD, Norby RJ. 2015. Predicting long-term carbon sequestration in response to CO2 enrichment: How and why do current ecosystem models differ? Global Biogeochemical Cycles 29: 476-495. PDF

De Kauwe MG, Medlyn BE, Zaehle S, Walker AP, Dietze MC, Wang YP, Luo Y, Jain AK, El-Masri B, Hickler T, Wårlind D, Weng ES, Parton WJ, Thornton PE, Wang S, Prentice IC, Asao S, Smith B, McCarthy HR, Iversen CM, Hanson PJ, Warren JM, Oren R, Norby RJ. 2014. Where does the carbon go? A model-data intercomparison of vegetation carbon allocation and turnover processes at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment sites. New Phytologist 203: 883-899. PDF

Walker AP, Hanson PJ, De Kauwe MG, Medlyn BE, Zaehle S, Asao S, Dietze MC, Hickler T, Huntingford C, Iversen CM, Jain AK, Lomas M, Luo Y, McCarthy HR, Parton WJ, Prentice IC, Thornton PE, Wang S, Wang YP, Wårlind D, Weng ES, Warren JM, Woodward FI, Oren R, Norby RJ. 2014. Comprehensive ecosystem model-data synthesis using multiple datasets at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment experiments: model performance at ambient CO2 concentration. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 119: 937-964. PDF

Zaehle S, Medlyn BE, De Kauwe MG, Walker AP, Dietze MC, Hickler T, Luo Y, Wang YP, El-Masri B, Thornton P, Jain A, Wang S, Warlind D, Weng E, Parton W, Iversen CM, Gallet-Budynek A, McCarthy H, Finzi A, Hanson PJ, Prentice IC, Oren R, Norby RJ. 2014. Evaluation of eleven terrestrial carbon-nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO2 Enrichment studies. New Phytologist 202: 803-822. PDF

De Kauwe MG, Medlyn BE, Zaehle S, Walker AP, Dietze MC, Hickler T, Jain AK, Luo Y, Parton WJ, Prentice C, Smith B, Thornton PE, Wang S, Wang YP, Wårlind D, Weng ES, Crous KY, Ellsworth DS, Hanson PJ, Seok-Kim H, Warren JM, Oren R, Norby RJ. 2013. Forest water use and water use efficiency at elevated CO2: a model-data intercomparison at two contrasting temperate forest FACE sites. Global Change Biology 19: 1759-1779. PDF

Primary Publications from the ORNL FACE Experiment

Norby RJ, Warren JM, Iversen CM, Childs J, Jawdy SS, Walker AP. 2022. Forest stand and canopy development unaltered by 12 years of CO2 enrichment. Tree Physiology 42: 428-440 10.1093/treephys/tpab107. PDF

Pan Y, Jackson RB, Hollinger DY, Phillips OL, Nowak RS, Norby RJ, Oren R, Reich PB,
Lüscher A, Mueller KE, Owensby C, Birdsey R, Hom J, Luo Y. 2021. Contrasting responses
of woody and grassland ecosystems to increased CO2 as water supply varies. Nature Ecology and Evolution 6:315+. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-021-01642-6

Norby RJ. 2021. Comment on “Increased growing-season productivity drives earlier autumn leaf senescence in temperate trees”. Science 10.1126/science.abg1438. PDF

Gonzalez-Meler MA, Poghosyan A, Sanchez-de Leon Y, Dias de Olivera E, Norby RJ, Sturchio NC. 2018. Does elevated atmospheric CO2 affect soil carbon burial and soil weathering in a forest ecosystem? PeerJ 6: e5356. PDF

Sánchez-de León Y, Wise DH, Lugo-Pérez J, Norby RJ, James SW, Gonzalez-Meler MA.2018. Endogeic earthworm densities increase in response to higher fine-root production in a forest exposed to elevated CO2. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 122: 31-38. PDF

Eberhardt TL, Labbe N, So CL, Kim K, Reed KG, Leduc DJ, Warren JM. 2015. Effects of long-term elevated CO2 treatment on the inner and outer bark chemistry of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) trees. Trees-Structure and Function 29: 1735-1747. PDF

Hockaday, WC, Gallagher ME, Masiello CA, Baldock JA, Iversen CM, Norby RJ. 2015. Forest soil carbon oxidation state and oxidative ratio increase in response to elevated CO2. Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences 120: 1797-1811. PDF

Kim K, Labbe N, Warren JM, Elder T, Rials TG. 2015. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L. xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO2Environmental Pollution 198: 179-185. PDF

Warren JM, Jensen AM, Medlyn BE, Norby RJ, Tissue DT. 2015. Carbon dioxide stimulation of photosynthesis in Liquidambar styraciflua is not sustained during a 12-year field experiment. AoB Plants 7: plu074. PDF

Battipaglia B, Saurer M, Cherubini P, Calfapietra C, McCarthy HR, Norby RJ, Cotrufo MF. 2012. Elevated CO2 increases tree-level intrinsic water use efficiency: insights from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses in tree rings across three forest FACE sites. New Phytologist 197: 544-554. PDF

Lynch DJ, Matamala R, Iversen CM, Norby RJ, Gonzalez-Meler MA. 2013. Stored carbon partly fuels fine-root respiration but is not used for production of new fine roots. New Phytologist 199: 420-430.  PDF

Iversen CM, Keller JK, Garten CT Jr., Norby RJ. 2012. Soil carbon and nitrogen cycling and storage throughout the soil profile in a sweetgum plantation after 11 years of CO2-enrichment. Global Change Biology 18: 1684-1697.  PDF

McMurtrie RE, Iversen CM, Dewar RC, Medlyn BE, Näsholm T, Pepper DA, Norby RJ. 2012. Plant root distributions and nitrogen uptake predicted by a hypothesis of optimal root foraging. Ecology and Evolution 2: 1235-1250. PDF

Wicklein HF, Ollinger SV, Martin ME, Hollinger DY, Lepine LC, Day MC, Bartlett MK, Richardson AD , Norby RJ. 2012. Variation in foliar nitrogen and albedo in response to nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2Oecologia 169: 915-925.  PDF

Garten CT, Iversen CM, Norby RJ. 2011. Litterfall 15N abundance indicates declining soil nitrogen availability in a free-air CO2-enrichment experiment. Ecology 92:133-139.  PDF

Iversen CM, Hooker TD, Classen AT, Norby RJ. 2011. Net mineralization of N at deeper soil depths as a potential mechanism for sustained forest production under elevated [CO2]. Global Change Biology 17: 1130-1139.  PDF

Norby RJ, Zak DR. 2011. Ecological lessons from free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 42: 181-203.  PDF

Warren JM, Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD. 2011. Elevated CO2 enhances leaf senescence during extreme drought in a temperate forest. Tree Physiology 31: 117-130.  PDF

Warren JM, Pötzelsberger E, Wullschleger SD, Hasenauer H, Thornton PE, Norby RJ. 2011. Ecohydrological impact of reduced stomatal conductance in forests exposed to elevated CO2. Ecohydrology 4: 196-210.  PDF

Iversen CM. 2010. Digging deeper: Fine root responses to rising atmospheric [CO2] in forested ecosystems. New Phytologist 186: 346-357.  PDF

Norby RJ, Warren JM, Iversen CM, Medlyn BE, McMurtrie RE. 2010. CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 19368-19373.  PDF

Souza L, Belote RT, Kardol P, Weltzin JF, Norby RJ. 2010. CO2 enrichment increased forest understory biomass and accelerates successional development of an understory community. Journal of Plant Ecology 3: 33-39.  PDF

Austin EE, Castro HF, Sides KE, Schadt CW, Classen AT. 2009. Assessment of 10 years of CO2 fumigation on soil microbial communities and function in a sweetgum plantation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41:514-520.  PDF

Franklin O, McMurtrie RE, Iversen CM, Crous KY, Finzi A, Tissue D, Ellsworth D, Oren R, Norby RJ. 2009. Forest fine-root production and nitrogen use under elevated CO2: Contrasting responses in evergreen and deciduous trees explained by a common principle. Global Change Biology 15: 132-144.   PDF

Garten CT Jr, Brice DJ. 2009. Belowground fate of 15N injected into sweetgum trees (Liquidambar styraciflua) at the ORNL FACE Experiment. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 23: 3094-3100.  PDF

Natali S, Sañudo-Wilhemy SA, Lerdau M. 2009. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization on nitrate reductase activity in sweetgum and loblolly pine trees in two temperate forests. Plant and Soil 314: 197-210. PDF 

Iversen CM, Ledford J, Norby RJ. 2008. CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from fine roots in a deciduous forest. New Phytologist 179: 837-847.  PDF

Iversen CM, Norby RJ. 2008. Nitrogen limitation in a sweetgum plantation: Implications for carbon allocation and storage. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38: 1021-1032.  PDF

McMurtrie RE, Norby RJ, Medlyn BE, Dewar RC, Pepper DA, Reich PB, Barton CVM. 2008. Why is plant-growth response to elevated CO2 amplified when water is limiting but reduced when nitrogen is limiting? A growth-optimisation hypothesis. Functional Plant Biology 35: 521-534.  PDF

Natali SM, Sañudo-Wilhemy SA, Norby RJ, Zhang H, Finzi AC, Lerdau MT. 2008. Increased mercury in forest soils under elevated carbon dioxide. Oecologia 158: 343-354.  PDF

Finzi AC, Norby RJ, Calfapietra C, Gallet-Budynek A, Gielen B, Holmes WE, Hoosbeek MR, Iversen CM, Jackson RB, Kubiske ME, Ledford J, Liberloo M, Oren R, Polle A, Pritchard S, Zak DR, Schlesinger WH, Ceulemans R. 2007. Increases in nitrogen uptake rather than nitrogen-use efficiency support higher rates of temperate forest productivity under elevated CO2Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104: 14014-14019.  PDF

Monson RK, Trahan N, Rosenstiel TN, Veres P, Moore D, Wilkinson M, Norby RJ, Volder A, Tjoelker MG, Briske DD, Karnosky DF, Fall R. 2007. Isoprene emission from terrestrial ecosystems in response to global change: minding the gap between models and observations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 365: 1677-1695.  PDF

Liu Q, Edwards NT, Post WM, Gu L, Ledford J, Lenhart S. 2006. Temperature-independent diel variation in soil respiration observed from a temperate deciduous forest. Global Change Biology 12: 2136-2145.  PDF

Norby RJ, Iversen CM. 2006. Nitrogen uptake, distribution, turnover, and efficiency of use in a CO2-enriched sweetgum forest. Ecology 87:5-14.  PDF

Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD, Hanson PJ, Gunderson CA, Tschaplinski TJ, Jastrow JD. 2006. CO2 enrichment of a deciduous forest: The Oak Ridge FACE Experiment. pp. 231-251 In Managed Ecosystems and CO2: Case Studies, Processes, and Perspectives (Nösberger J, Long SP, Norby RJ, Stitt M, Hendrey GR, Blum H, editors). Ecological Studies, Vol. 187. Springer, Berlin.  PDF

DeLucia EH, Moore DJ, Norby RJ. 2005. Contrasting responses of forest ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO2: implications for the global C cycle. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19: GB3006.  PDF

Jastrow JD, Miller RM, Matamala R, Norby RJ, Boutton TW, Rice CW, Owensby CE. 2005. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases soil carbon. Global Change Biology 11:2057-2064.  PDF

Norby RJ, DeLucia EH, Gielen B, Calfapietra C, Giardina CP, King JS, Ledford J, McCarthy HR, Moore DJP, Ceulemans R, De Angelis P, Finzi AC, Karnosky DF, Kubiske ME, Lukac M, Pregitzer KS, Scarascia-Mugnozza GE, Schlesinger WH, Oren R. 2005. Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102: 18052-18056.  PDF

Belote RT, Weltzin JF, Norby RJ. 2004. Response of an understory plant community to elevated [CO2] depends on differential responses of dominant invasive species and is mediated by soil water availability. New Phytologist 161: 827-835.  PDF

Johnson DW, Cheng W, Joslin JD, Norby RJ, Edwards NT, Todd DE Jr. 2004. Effects of elevated CO2 on nutrient cycling in a sweetgum plantation. Biogeochemistry 69: 379-403. PDF

King JS, Hanson PJ, Bernhardt E, DeAngelis P, Norby RJ, Pregitzer KS. 2004. A multi-year synthesis of soil respiration responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 from four forest FACE experiments. Global Change Biology 10: 1027-1042.  PDF

Matamala R, Gonzàlez-Meler MA, Jastrow JD, Norby RJ, Schlesinger WH. 2004. Response to comment on “Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potential”. Science 304: 1745d-1745d.  PDF

Neher DA, Weicht TR, Moorhead DL, Sinsabaugh RL. 2004. Elevated CO2 alters functional attributes of nematode communities in forest soils. Functional Ecology 18: 584-591.  PDF

Norby RJ, Ledford J, Reilly CD, Miller NE, O’Neill EG. 2004. Fine-root production dominates response of a deciduous forest to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101: 9689-9693.  PDF

Sanders NJ, Belote RT, Weltzin JF. 2004. Multi-trophic effects of elevated CO2 on understory plant and arthropod communities. Environmental Entomology 33: 1609-1616.  PDF

Sholtis JD, Gunderson CA, Norby RJ, Tissue DT. 2004. Persistent stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated CO2 in a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) forest stand. New Phytologist 162: 343-354.  PDF

Edwards NT, Riggs JS. 2003. Automated monitoring of soil respiration. A moving chamber design. Soil Science Society of America Journal 67:1266-1271.  PDF

George K, Norby RJ, Hamilton JG, DeLucia EH. 2003. Fine-root respiration in a loblolly pine and sweetgum forest growing in elevated CO2New Phytologist 160: 511-522. PDF

Matamala R, Gonzàlez-Meler MA, Jastrow JD, Norby RJ, Schlesinger WH. 2003. Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potential. Science 302: 1385-1387. PDF

Norby RJ, Sholtis JD, Gunderson CA, Jawdy SS. 2003. Leaf dynamics of a deciduous forest canopy: no response to elevated CO2Oecologia 136:574-584.  PDF

Sinsabaugh RL, Saiya-Cork K, Long T, Osgood MP, Neher DA, Zak DR, Norby RJ. 2003. Soil microbial activity in a Liquidambar plantation unresponsive to CO2-driven increases in primary productivity. Applied Soil Ecology 24: 263-271.  PDF

Zak DR, Holmes WE, Finzi AC, Norby RJ, and Schlesinger WH. 2003. Soil nitrogen cycling under elevated CO2: A synthesis of forest FACE experiments. Ecological Applications 13: 1508-1514.  PDF

Edwards NT, Tschaplinski TJ, Norby RJ. 2002. Stem respiration increases in CO2-enriched trees. New Phytologist 155: 239-248.  PDF

Gunderson CA, Sholtis JD, Wullschleger SD, Tissue DT, Hanson PJ, Norby RJ. 2002. Environmental and stomatal control of photosynthetic enhancement in the canopy of a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L) plantation during three years of CO2 enrichment. Plant Cell & Environment 25: 379-393.  PDF

Norby RJ, Hanson PJ, O’Neill EG, Tschaplinski TJ, Weltzin JF, Hansen RT, Cheng W, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Edwards NT, Johnson DW. 2002. Net primary productivity of a CO2-enriched deciduous forest and the implications for carbon storage. Ecological Applications 12: 1261-1266.  PDF

Tissue DT, Lewis JD, Wullschleger SD, Amthor JS, Griffin KL, Anderson OR. 2002. Leaf respiration at different canopy positions in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) grown in ambient and elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide in the field. Tree Physiology 22: 1157-1166.  PDF

Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Hanson PJ, Wilson KB, Norby RJ. 2002. Sensitivity of stomatal and canopy conductance to elevated CO2 concentration — interacting variables and perspectives of scale. New Phytologist 153: 485-496.  PDF

Norby RJ, Todd DE, Fults J, Johnson DW. 2001. Allometric determination of tree growth in a CO2-enriched sweetgum stand. New Phytologist 150: 477-487.  PDF

Wullschleger SD, Norby RJ. 2001. Sap velocity and canopy transpiration for a 12-year-old sweetgum stand exposed to free-air CO2 enrichment. New Phytologist 150: 489-498.  PDF

Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA, Johnson DW, Ceulemans R. 1999. Tree responses to rising CO2: Implications for the future forest. Plant, Cell and Environment 22: 683-714.  PDF

Syntheses and Compilations Using Data from the ORNL FACE Experiment

Franks PJ, Adams MA, Amthor JS, Barbour MM, Berry JA, Ellsworth DS, Farquhar GD, Ghannoum O, Lloyd J, McDowell N, Norby RJ, Tissue DT, von Caemmerer S. 2013. Sensitivity of plants to changing atmospheric CO2 concentration: from the geological past to the next century. New Phytologist 197: 1077–1094.

Iversen CM, O’Brien SL. 2010. Organized Oral Session 3. Missing Links in the Root-Soil Organic Matter Continuum. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 91(1): pp. 54-64.

O’Brien SL, Iversen CM. 2009. Missing links in the root-soil organic matter continuum. New Phytologist 184: 513-516.

Hickler T, Smith B, Prentice IC, Mjofors K, Miller P, Arneth A, Sykes MT. 2008. CO2 fertilization in temperate FACE experiments not representative of boreal and tropical forests. Global Change Biology 14: 1531-1542.

Franklin O. 2007. Optimal nitrogen allocation controls tree responses to elevated CO2New Phytologist 174: 811-822.

Hyvönen R, Ågren GI, Linder S, Persson T, Cotrufo MF, Ekblad A, Freeman M, Grelle A, Janssens IA, Jarvis PG, Kellomäki S, Lindroth A, Loustau D, Lundmark T, Norby RJ, Oren R, Pilegaard K, Ryan MG, Sigurdsson BD, Strömgren M, van Oijen M, Wallin G. 2007. The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature, and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. A literature review. New Phytologist 163: 463-480. 

Körner C, Morgan J, Norby R. 2007. CO2 fertilization When, where, how much? pp. 9-21 In Canadell JG, Pataki DE, Pitelka LF (eds) ‘Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World’, Springer, Berlin.

Mathews HD. 2007. Implications of CO2 fertilization for future climate change in a coupled climate-carbon model. Global Change Biology 13: 1068-1078.

Nösberger J, Long SP, Norby RJ, Stitt M, Hendrey GR, Blum H (Eds.) 2006. Managed Ecosystems and CO2: Case Studies, Processes, and Perspectives. Ecological Studies, Vol. 187. Springer, Berlin . 459 p.

DeLucia EH, Moore DJ, Hamilton JG, Thomas RB, Springer CJ, Norby RJ. 2005. The changing role of forests in the global carbon cycle: responding to elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. pp. 179-214 In: Lal R, Duxbury J, Steward BA Hansen DO, eds. Climate Change and Global Food Security,CRC Press.

Hanson PJ, Wullschleger SD, Norby RJ, Tschaplinski TJ, Gunderson CA. 2005. Importance of changing CO2 temperature, precipitation, and ozone on carbon and water cycles of an upland oak forest: incorporating experimental results into model simulations. Global Change Biology 11: 1402-1423.

Norby RJ, Joyce LA, Wullschleger SD. 2005. Modern and future forests in a changing atmosphere. pp. 394-414 In: Ehleringer JR, Cerling TE, Dearing MD, eds, A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems. Springer, New York .

Cotrufo MF, Drake B, Ehleringer JR. 2005. Palatability trials on hardwood leaf litter grown under elevated CO2: a stable carbon isotope study. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37:1105-1112.

Norby RJ. 2004. Forest responses to a future CO2-enriched atmosphere. pp. 158-159 In: W. Steffen et al. (eds.) Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure. Springer, Berlin.

BassiriRad H, Constable JVH, Lussenhop J, Kimball BA, Norby RJ, Oechel WC, Reich PB, Schlesinger WH, Zitzer S, Sehtiya HL, Silim S. 2003 Widespread foliage δ15N depletion under elevated CO2: inferences for the nitrogen cycle. Global Change Biology 9: 1582-1590. 

Reid CD, Maherali H, Johnson HB, Smith SD, Wullschleger SD, Johnson RB. 2003. On the relationship between stomatal characters and atmospheric CO2Geophysical Research Letters 30, NO. 19, 1983, doi:10.1029/2003GL017775. 

Weltzin JF, Belote RT, Sanders NJ. 2003. Biological invaders in a greenhouse world: will elevated CO2 fuel plant invasions? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1: 138-145.

Johnson DW, Norby RJ, Hungate BA. 2001. Effects of elevated CO2 on nutrient cycling in forests. pp. 237-252 In: Karnosky DF, Ceulemans R, Scarascia-Mugnozza GE, Innes JL (eds.), The Impact of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases on Forest Ecosystems. CABI, Wallingford,UK.

Karnosky DF, Gielen B, Ceulemans R, Schlesinger WH, Norby RJ, Oksanen E, Matyssek R, Hendrey GR. 2001. FACE systems for studying the impacts of greenhouse gases on forest ecosystems. pp. 297-324 In: Karnosky DF, Ceulemans R, Scarascia-Mugnozza GE, Innes JL (eds.), The Impact of Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases on Forest Ecosystems. CABI, Wallingford, UK.

Griffin KL, Anderson OR, Gastrich MD, Lewis JD, Lin G, Schuster W, Seemann JR, Tissue DT, Turnbull MH, Whitehead D. 2001. Plant growth in elevated CO2 alters mitochondrial number and chloroplast fine structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98: 2473-2478. 

Norby RJ, Jackson RB. 2000. Root dynamics and global change seeking an ecosystem perspective. New Phytologist 147: 3-12. 

Norby RJ, Cotrufo MF, Ineson P, O’Neill EG, Canadell JG. 2001. Elevated CO2, litter chemistry, and decomposition — A synthesis. Oecologia 127: 153-165. 

Dissertations and Theses

Hazareh T. 2008. The use of forest models to understand effects of elevated CO2 on aboveground forest productivity. Masters thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Iversen CM. 2008. Forest growth and carbon storage in a changing world: Causes and consequences of increased fine-root production in a CO2-enriched sweetgum plantation. PhD Dissertation, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.

Natali SM. 2008. Effects of elevated CO2 on trace metals in forest leaves and soils. PhD Dissertation, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York.

Belote RT. 2003. Effects of elevated CO2 on a forest understory community dominated by two invasive plants. MS Thesis, The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee.

Sholtis JD. 2002. Effects of elevated CO2 on sweetgum ecophysiology. PhD Dissertation, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas